Most business students have to talk about data at some point in their careers. Help your student present and discuss data in charts, graphs and info graphics with this vocabulary class.

In addition to vocabulary, there are worksheets showing various different graphs. To practice, ask your student to explain to their insights on each graph.

**Types
of charts**

**Pie chart **

**Bar chart **

**A diagram**

**Line graph**

**Scatter graph**

**Info graphic**

**Parts of a chart**

**X and Y axis**

**Dotted lines** – the broken lines
often used on graphs.

**Speaking task**

Ask your student to identify these types of charts and graphs. Ask them also to identify the parts of a graph such as the X and Y axis and any dotted lines.

**Speaking about data**

**Increases **

**To increase, to grow.**

*‘We have grown our product range 50% in the
last 12 months.’*

**To experience steady growth** – to
grow slowly and predictably.

*‘The company has experienced steady growth for
the last two years.’*

**To peak, a peak** – the
highest point in a graph.

*‘New sign ups to our gym peaked in January.’*

**To reach a high point** – another
way to say ‘the peak.’

*‘Sales reached a high point in June.’*

**To rocket **– to increase dramatically.

*‘Take up of this service has rocketed in the last few months.’*

**To shoot up** –a large increase.

*‘Sales have shot up this quarter 33%.’*

**Decreases**

**To decrease, to drop, to fall. **

*‘Complaints have fallen by 20% in the last
quarter and so this is good news.’*

**To experience a decrease/ a drop/a fall** in something.

*‘We have experienced a 30% drop in customers
using our physical bank. People now prefer to go online.’*

**To decline, a decline** – another,
sometimes more negative way to say ‘a decrease.’

‘Birth rates have been declining in the western world for 30 years.’

**To plummet, a plummet** – a
sharp or dramatic fall.

*‘Sales of the car plummeted when the company
announced that it did not meet the new CO2 emission requirements.’*

**The lowest point, the trough, the dip** – the
lowest point in a graph.

*‘The trough represents the lowest point in
sales. But that’s understandable – no one wants to buy ski equipment in June!’*

**Adjectives
to describe large and small increases and decreases**

**Small**: Slight, tiny, gradual, steady.

**Big**: Dramatic, steep, significant, considerable, sudden.

**Up and down**

**To fluctuate** – when an amount goes
up and down rapidly.

*‘We have seen fluctuating temperatures all
summer. Sometimes it’s as low as 20 degrees and sometimes as high as 40
degrees.’*

**No Change**

**To level off**

*‘Wage
growth has levelled off in the last quarter.’*

**To stay
the same**

**To remain
constant/stable**

**To stabilise**

*‘Participles
of CO2 in the air have finally stabilised.’*

**Trends and reading data**

**An insight **-a deep understanding of something.

*‘This data gave us a good insight on consumer trends.’*

**To see an upward trend** – an
increasing tendency or trend.

**To see a downward trend** – a
decreasing tendency or trend.

*‘We are seeing an upward trend among young
people to enrol in higher education. In comparison we are seeing downward trend
in young people starting.’*

**A trajectory** – the path of a curve
in a graph.

*‘We predict from this trajectory that the global population will be 9.2 billion by 2050.*

**Ways to present information**

**To represent**

*‘This chart represents…’*

**To show/ to demonstrate**

*‘This graph shows…’*

**To illustrate**

*‘This data illustrates that….’*

**To describe**

*‘This info graphic describes…’*

**Making comparisons**

**To compare to, in
comparison to**

**As opposed to**

**Versus**

*‘The government has
increased its spending on healthcare, as opposed to education, where we can see
that it has reduced the budget.’*

**Speaking task**

Using the same worksheet, ask your student to describe the different charts and tell you what they see in the data.

**Percentages**

**Percent **– specified amount in or for every hundred.

**Percentage point** – arithmetic difference of two percentages.

**NOTE**: There is an important difference between ‘*percent*’ and ‘*percentage point.’ *

Source

“A percent point is the unit for the arithmetic difference of two percentages. For example, moving up from 40% to 44% is a 4 percentage point increase, but is a 10 percent increase in what is being measured.”Wikipiedia.

If your student has to talk about data for their work, make sure that they understand the difference.

**A proportion** – a part, share, or number considered in comparative relation
to a whole.

*‘The proportion of the population with a university degree
has steadily increased since the turn of the century.’*

Number + **out of**
+ number (not ‘from’).

*‘**Seven
out of 10 people prefer dogs to cats.’*

**More than/ greater
than **– >

**Less than** – <

**Numbers**

**Remember: **Large numbers are separated by a comma in English, not a point.

For example: 1,327,564 (not, 1.327.564)

**AND**: Fractions are written with a decimal point in English, not a comma.

For example: 4.3 and 6.7 (not, 4,3 and 6,7).

**Homework** and final thoughts

Data journalism is exploding across the internet and makes very interesting topics of conversation. Ask your student to read a data story for homework and explain to you the graphs in the next lesson.

Places to find data journalism stories:

**The Upshot, from the New York Times **

##### Worksheets

Finally, here are some excellent worksheets to give for homework to practice this vocabulary, from tutor** Gareth J. **